Archive-name: greek-faq/technical
Last-modified: 1994/03/31

Soc.Culture.Greek Frequently Asked Questions and Answers
(Technical Information)
Last Change: 31 March 1994

Many FAQs, including this one, are available on the archive site [] in the directory pub/usenet/news.answers.
The name under which a FAQ is archived appears in the Archive-name
line at the top of the article.
This FAQ is archived as greek-faq/technical

There's a mail server on that machine. You send a e-mail message to  containing the keyword "help" (without
quotes!) in the message body.

Items Changed:
3. Internet/BITNET/UUCP sites in Greece?
	a. Internet sites

Lines which got changed, have the `#' character in front of them.
Added lines are prepended with a `+'
Removed lines are just removed. Use 'diff' to locate these changes.

I have included my comments within braces '[' and ']'.

Nikolaos Fotis


This text is (C)Copyright 1992, 1993, 1994 of Nikolaos C. Fotis. You can copy
freely this file, provided you keep this copyright notice intact.

Compiled by Nikolaos (Nick) C. Fotis, e-mail:

Please contact me for updates,corrections, etc.

Disclaimer: that's only a hasty collection of texts and information as I
(or other people) remember it, so this file is worth only what you paid
for it (and even less! ;-) )


First, I wish to thank publicly the following people:

Spiros Triantafyllopoulos <>
P." Iatroudakis           <>
Achilles Voliotis         <>
Yiannis Moschovakis       <>

for their help in making the initial list more clear and complete.

Second, that's only a hasty collection of texts and information as I
(or other people) remember it, so this file is worth only what you paid for it
(and even less! ;-) )


1. What is the Soc.Culture.Greek newsgroup??
        a. Newsgroup charter
        b. Network etiquette.
        c. How does one receive soc.culture.greek without USENET access??
2. What's needed in order to have Greek characters in my computer?
        a. PCs
        b. PCs with MS Windows
        c. Mac
	d. Amiga
	e. Atari
        f. Other
3. Internet/BITNET/UUCP sites in Greece?
	a. Internet sites
	b. BITNET/EARN sites
	c. UUCP sites
	d. Internet providers
4. What standards exist for inclusion of Greek characters into ASCII text?
5. How do I typeset greek with troff/TeX/WP/... ??
	a. TeX/LaTeX
	b. Other typesetting systems
6. Greek fonts into X Windows
7. Backgammon servers

Proposed future subjects:
[ Please send me info to stuff these subjects!! -- nfotis]

[any ideas/info/... ??]


I ask the people to send me stuff in order to make this file more
complete. I'm just a kind of editor, and I cannot know everything.

YOU'll determine if this FAQ is good or not!


1. What is the Soc.Culture.Greek newsgroup??

a. Newsgroup charter

[ From David Lawrence: ]

soc.culture.greek predates news.groups. The only description that can be
found is:

soc.culture.greek           Newsgroup about Greeks

[ So, we could codify ourselves a 'defacto' charter. Does anyone want to
  submit stuff here? ]

b. Network etiquette
[ Excerpted from Eugene Miya's Draft FAQ in ]

We assume you have read news.announce.newusers and that you understand
network informalities.  This group is not moderated, and this is one
experiment in self-moderation (education).

If you have questions, ask you system administrator.  If you are the system
administrator, use MAIL, and ask your net neighbors.

Do not post TESTS here.  Special testing groups exist to acknowledge your
posts.  Test in misc.test, or in your locale: e.g., ba.test, ca.test, na.test,

Some people believe the charter should be posted.  The name of the group
should sufficiently convey the purpose of this group.

Flame wars: 1) Flame using mail.  Failing that 2) Cut down on the number
of groups in your Newsgroups: line.  3) Use Followup-To: a line with
fewer newsgroups.  Make certain you read all posts before responding, the net
is asynchronous enough as it is: the History of Dumb posts includes such
titles as
"What time is it?"  "The Space Shuttle blew up!" and "California just had an
earthquake."  See your local broadcast news.

Attribution: (Those lines frequently beginning with ">")  MINIMIZE.
Especially: don't post "Me, too" posts after 100 lines of attribution.
Remove especially long sigatures at the bottoms of posts.
Use email.  Show that you are intelligent and net savvy in your postings.
Edit carefully.

[If you feel that the ratio of inflammatory or irrelevant posts is too high for
 your tastes, go read the manual of your news reader in the section of kill
 files. This way, you can customize your news reader to not bother you with
 messages from certain people, or which contain particular keywords in their
 headers. This way, you can avoid all the headache associated with such posts -
 not a minor thing - nfotis ]


c. How does one receive soc.culture.greek without USENET access??

Send a mail with subject "help post" to
or do a "finger"


2. What's needed in order to have Greek characters in my computer?

a. PCs

[ The following information applies for AT-like PCs. For PS/2s, things
 are somewhat different, but I don't know many details -- nfotis ]

For english in GENERAL, you will have either a software or hardware solution:

For Monochrome, Hercules, and CGA your only hope is a Greek Chip Character
Generator. It is usually supplied by the Greek PC vendors. If you buy the
PC elsewhere (i.e. in the US) and bring it to Greece, tough.

For EGA/VGA, there are plenty of user-defined fonts around. In Greece,
your vendor will typically supply with one, or there are free versions.
All it really is is the software version of the Character Chip.

In either case, the Greek Characters take over the high bytes (128+)
of the extended ASCII set the PC uses and replace the funny symbols
umlauts, funny puncuation, etc) with Greek letters. In the first case it
is done in hardware, second in software. Then there is a TSR program loaded
at boot time that switches (i.e. ALT-SHIFT toggles between the two.
This program is also supplied by the vendor.

A third SLOW case for CGA/Herc machines is to use SOFT fonts, i.e. characters
done in graphics mode. Extremely slow but inexpensive. A good Shareware
Greek word processor works that way. Details below.

This way you get to type greek to programs like text editors. When the text
is saved (extended or 8 bit text) you'll see the funny characters that
Greek is represented by.

Same deal with printers, i.e. the PRINTER character chip will have the extended
ascii set to include Greek. So when you print a file using DOS print, it will
come up OK. Alternatively, printers that handle soft (downloadable) fonts,
can download the fonts and then you print as usual.

A good word processor for Greek (and many other non english languages) is
INTEXT12. It can be found at various US ftp sites ( under
editors directory). Accepts the common denominator (herc/cga) and uses soft
fonts. Works OK for things like letters etc though I would not try anything
like a college thesis with it.

Commercial systems:
For more $$$, you can buy NOTA BENE (i believe) which has a very good Greek
mode for $500 or so. Several small vendors advertise Greek WP systems typically
in the back of, say, PC Magazine or Byte. Prices are in the $150-$500 range.
Also, the WordPerfect distributor here has made a Greek version of the software
and the manuals. PCwrite also does works well with Greek letters.

b. PCs with MS Windows

WinGreek (1.7 is the latest version): Greek-Hebrew Fonts/Accenter/Conv CCAT
for Win3. It's shareware and includes:

-Screen Fonts for Hercules, EGA, VGA & 8514
-Printer fonts for 9pin & 24pin Printers, HP LaserJets & Postscript.
-Utilities for Entering Accents (European Languages & Greek) and
      Converting between File Formats (WinGreek <=CCAT).

New in version 1.8: New Greek Font and New Versions of Utilities.

New in version 1.7: Coptic / Greek / Hebrew TrueType Font for Windows 3.1
                    TrueType For All Printers Supported by Windows 3.1.

author: Peter Gentry <>

Several font vendors also supply their own fonts with ATM and TrueType. You can
also use the SYMBOL fonts which looks kind of silly (i.e. troff) but works
if everything else fails.

With the advent of Windows 3.1, the existing problem of printing to
IBM-speaking printers will be eliminated via the downloaded font system.
(The printers here in general know only the old IBM-PC character set, while
the MS Windows had ELOT-928 - you may guess the confusion that arose and
the need for more filters ;-) )

From: Jeff Beneker <>
 There's a CLASSICS mailing list, for discussing Greek Classics and Latin.
 From this list I got info about Greek fonts on PCs, etc.
 [To subscribe on the list, send an e-mail message to
  with the following line on the body of the message:
 [ Be warned: the stuff *is* out of date! I got it last September... - nfotis ]
 For those using Windows 3.1, a Classical Greek font is in the works at
 Monotype -- about one month from publication.  From what I'm told, it will
 be a PS font but not TrueType.  I suggested to them that they create also a
 Latin font that would have macrons.  I think thiskwould make a very
 marketable classical package.  In the meantime, how do Windows users solve
 the macron problem?  I'm using the circumflex vowels in the extended
 C as a sort of makeshift solution.  Maybe a few phone calls to
 Monotype would encourage them to help us out.  Call 1-800-MONOTYPE and express
 your ideas to sales manager Steve Kuhlman.
 >From: Oliver Phillips <PHILLIPS%UKANVM.BITNET>
 Yes, you can run Greek on a an IBM compatible provided it and its
 monitor have VGA capabilities, 386 (perhaps 286) or higher.  I
 run Windows 3.1 (3.0 will do), Word for Windows (hereinafter
 WinWord).  With the Pharos search program came packaged the
 WinGreek Greek and Hebrew fonts, with full diacriticals visible
 on the screen--only one Greek font, however, though suiting
 my needs perfectly.  WinGreek will only work with WinWord
 though can be used independently of Pharos.
 Get WinGreek from Peter Gentry at 55 Ambercroft Blvd., Scarborough,
 Ontario, Canada M1W 2z6,  $35.00 Yankee
 dollar, as I recall.   Andrew Fountain distibutes it in the UK, but
 I don't have his address.
 Get Pharos 0.2 (bundled with WinGreek) by anonymous ftp from
 the University of California at Santa Barbara--but I don't
 have the Internet address.  To get it by smail on disk send
 $15.00 to
 Dan Thibodeau
 Department of Classics
 Santa Barbara, CA 93106
 For ftp instructions contact him at 6500dan@ucsbuxa.bitnet or
 [ WinGreek is mentioned elsewhere ]

c. Mac

  I am a Mac user, and I noted an error on your FAQ. It suggests that Greek
  Macs have a special ROM.  This is not the case (as you could've guessed,
  Apple isn't interested in producing 100 versions of 3 different ROMs).
  Foreign-language is implemented through different versions of
  the System, and are really only very minor modifications to
  the System (just changing the menus and dialog boxes). The
  keyboard translations are done through keyboard files, which
  can be added to any system (so any system can be bilingual or
  trilingual, etc., except you would need to mark up the keyboard).
  Anyway, each international version of the system comes with the
  proper keyboard installed, and you can add them as you please,etc.

  All Apple systems up through 7.01 were free; there was a $35 charge
  for 7.1 or if you were upgrading from an older system and wanted
  to have the manuals.   In any case, anyone can still get ANY
  version of System 7.01 for free.  Most international versions
  are available from FTP.APPLE.COM (under software/mac/sys.soft)
  via anonymous FTP.  However, I'm not sure the Greek one is on there.
  In any case, anyone should be able run it, provided they have
  the proper uptodate version. 

  In any case, I'd recommend for most people in the US to just
  use "Symbol" if they want to type in Greek every so often. If
  they are in Greece, just copy the system disks and reinstall
  the new system.
-- end

  The MacOS is completely hellenized (menus, messages, etc.) and basic
applications are also hellenized and available with Greek font support
(eg. MS Word). If you have already a machine, and you want to add Greek
support, there are other solutions:

From: John Amanatides <>

1) Linguist's Software has typefaces for a wide variety of world
  languages and gives several options for those interested in Greek.
  First, you can purchase the Greek operating system for the Mac version
  6.0.3 (yes, those menus are now in Greek).  This includes GrTimes and
  GrHelvetica (Type 3) as well as several bit-mapped system fonts.
  Second, if you just want to use Greek on your Mac, they offer GrTimes
  and GrHelvetica in both Type1 and TrueType along with a keyboard driver
  for System 7 (this is the same keyboard layout as the Greek OS; the
  advantages of this is that you can exchange documents with Greek
  Macs).  Finally, they have their own TrueType and Type1 typefaces in
  the LaserGreek package: SumbolGreek, Graeca+Graeca-Oblique,
  SSuperGreek.  These are of particular interest to Greek scholars since
  they include extra dicriticals for ancient/N.T. Greek.  LaserGreek +
  Greek OS is $130, LaserGreek + GrTimes, GrHelvetica, and System 7
  keyboard driver) is $140.

	Linguist's Software
	PO Box 580
	Edmonds, WA 98020-0580
	(206) 775-1130

2) MacCampus of Germany provides Greek and other Eastern European
  typefaces.  The Greek typefaces come in two flavours: those that are
  based on the official Apple Greek keyboard layout (for both Greek OS
  Macs, and others when they have the appropriate keyboard driver) and
  those based on the Symbol font layout.  MacCampus provides a keyboard
  driver so that you can use the former type on non-Greek Macs.
  The typefaces available are:

	Modern Greek (Greek layout):
		GrTimes, GrHelvetica, GrCourier

	Classical Greek (extra diacritics, Symbol layout):
		Agora (serif, like GrTimes), Parmenides (light, sans-serif)

  MacCampus typefaces are distributed by FontShop, which has offices in
  many countries.  The North American address is:

	FontShop 401 Wellington St. West,
	Toronto, Ontario
	Canada M5V 1E8
	(416) 348-9837

  Their international address is:
	FontShop Berlin
	Bergmannsr. 102
	D10961 Berlin
	+49(030) 69 58 95

In general, you press the left-clover and Space keys to toggle
between Greek and English keyboard.

  The 'left-clover' key  is known in the Mac community as 'Command'
key. The trick should also work with the right Command-key on the Apple
Extended Keyboard. What happens when you do this is that you toggle the
'Keyboard' cdev (control device) from english to the local language. This
resides in the System Folder, and in theory you could rotate between more
than two keyboard mappings--e.g., greek, english, german and spanish. With
system 7 there is the inherent capability to include all available
'Keyboard' resources in a menu on the right side of the menu-bar of the
Finder, so that one could change the current setting easily. This has not
yet been fully implemented. If and when it does it will not affect the
individual application resources, in other words applications that are not
hellenized will not automatically become so.

d. Amiga

Amiga: there was a half-hearted attempt to implement Greek character sets
in the upper 128 positions. I don't know the current status of affairs in
this matter.

There are ELOT-928 and IBM-437 fonts floating around here. We hope that
CBM will have official Greek character support. I use currently an
8-bit clean version of 'vi' editor (elvis) with one of these fonts.

[ A netter offered his additions : ]
The Amiga always supported different fonts. I always write my greek letters
in a symbol font. But there are programs that support Adobe fonts and import
fonts from the MAC and IBM line of computers.
On top of that it is very easy to edit your own font.
Using most terminal programs is a question of selecting a menu entry and
you can get a diffrent font display on screen. Amiga also supports LaTex,

Also on a final note the latest version of the operating system (2.1?) you
can select the language you want and the Menu entries occur in the language
you wish (Translated not just change of fonts), easy script files can be
written and a click of a function key and you can swap between fonts.
So in general all Word processors, text editors, in fact all software
supports Greek ....

e. Atari: 
[ From: (Johannis Likos) ]

[ For further details about Greek on Atari or about 
  'Human Aided Machine Translation' (computerized translation
  of documents [ASCII text files] from/to Greek to/from other 
  European languages), contact him at the address:

  Johannis Likos 
  Rusthollarintie 13 F 46
  FIN-00910 Helsinki
  Finland  ]

A. Keyboard Layout
 Accessory made by Gizis & Statharas for all
 Ataris with TOS 1.4 and can be purchased from the 
 'Atari Club' in Athina/Pireas or from 'Soft Support' in
 This Accessory emulates somehow Greek typewriter by using
 SHIFT, ALTERNATE and CONTROL keys in various combinations
 in order to switch between Latin and Greek characters.
 Additionally accented (tonoumena) and/or umlauted (dialytika)
 small and capital characters are supported.
 It is not recommended for MultiTOS and/or Falcon030.
 Use only G+Plus as GDOS driver.
 Accessory distributed by 'The ST Club' in UK is
 made for Ataris with TOS 1.4 and it supports even oriental
 Keyboards (writing from right to left).
 It is very useful for companies in Greece and Cyprus, which
 are making business with the Arab world in North Africa and
 in Middle East.
 The Greek keyboard file for FSWITCH 2.0 you can get either
 from me ( or you edit it yourself.
 By using key combinations (ALT, SHIFT, etc.) can be switched
 between Greek, Latin and Arab (also Persian and Hebrew).
 It is not recommended for MultiTOS and/or Falcon030.
 Accessory distributed by 'Maxon GmbH' in Germany
 and the latest release is made for all TOS versions.
 So far it uses only UNSHIFTED, SHIFTED and CAPS LOCK and
 therefore it doesn't conflict with MultiTOS and/or AES 4.0
 and many various keyboard modules can be re-loaded.
 The Greek keyboard module for HARLEKIN 3.0 you can get 
 either from me ( or you edit it yourself.
B. Screen Fonts
 Accessory made by Gizis & Statharas for all
 Ataris with TOS 1.4 and can be purchased from the 
 'Atari Club' in Athina/Pireas or from 'Soft Support' in
 This Accessory includes 6x6 icon fonts 8x8 screen fonts
 for ST colour (color) resolutions and 8x16 screen fonts
 for ST monochrome resolution with 8-bit Greek IBM characters.
 It is not recommended for MultiTOS and/or Falcon030.
 Use only G+Plus as GDOS driver.
 Accessory distributed by 'The ST Club' in UK is
 made for Ataris with TOS 1.4 preferrably in monochrome mode.
 The Greek screen font files for FSWITCH 2.0 you can get 
 either from me ( or you edit them yourself.
 It is not recommended for MultiTOS and/or Falcon030.
 Accessory distributed by 'Maxon GmbH' in Germany
 and the latest release is made for all TOS versions.
 The Greek screen fonts module for HARLEKIN 3.0 you can get 
 either from me ( or you edit it yourself.
 MultiTOS 1.0
 (MiNT & Multitasking AES 4.x) can use alternative
 Greek screen fonts in GDOS format by defining the AE_FONTID 
 in the GEM.CNF file.
 Application, distributed by 'Application Systems
 Heidelberg GmbH' in Germany contains an application-specific
 Classic Greek (APXAIA) font set for Theology students.
 Greek (PKS) Editor window (8x16 pixel).
 For further details, please, contact me ( 
C. Printer Fonts (HP-DeskJet/LaserJet/PaintJet, SLM-406/605/804)
 Diablo630 bitmapped GDOS fonts for Greek 8-bit ASCII text
 only for Atari laser printers with DMA port, such as SLM804.
 bitmapped GDOS fonts for Greek GEM-Metafile output.
 is the only FontGDOS compatible driver, which works
 propperly with GREEK20B.ACC, because FontGDOS, SpeedoGDOS
 or AMCGDOS with GREEK20B.ACC will cause boot problems.
 Application, distributed by 'Application Systems
 Heidelberg GmbH' in Germany, contains an application-specific
 Classic Greek (polytonic) font upto 300/360 dpi in a special
 font library collection (maybe PD or shareware?!).
 has more than five application-specific 
 Greek (monotonic) font families with upto 2540 dpi output 
 resolution on phototypesetters (Linotronic, etc.).
 I have some self-made, if you need then contact me 
 PageStream 2.2
 uses Adobe Type 1 font technology and all you
 need are the AFM and BFM files for the 7-bit Symbol font set
 with math symbols and Greek characters in Times/Roman style.
 uses Bitstream FaceLift font technology and all 
 you need is the SPD file for the 7-bit Symbol font set with 
 math symbols and Greek characters in Swiss/Helvetica style.
 It is so far the best Scalable Font Technology on Atari
 comparable to TrueType on Windows.
 Any text size in a GEM-Metafile can be displayed on screen
 or printed on paper.
 MultiTeX 5.1
 on Atari is using only the standard Greek
 characters as math symbols but not as plain text.
 The problem of accents, spirits, hyphenation and other
 Greek language-specific topics are still unsolved.
 So, if someone has any solution for modern Greek (monotonic)
 or even ancient Greek (polytonic) on other platforms, please,
 contact me (, to find out how much work is 
 to be done for porting it to Atari's TeX environment.
D. Font Editors
 FontKitPlus 3.4
 distributed by 'The ST Club' in UK, offers
 the possibility to edit screen fonts and printer fonts.
 It contains many features, such as re-scaling of bitmapped
 fonts for other output devices.
 The resulting screen fonts can be used either with FSWITCH
 or with MultiTOS or with other GDOS conform applications.
 for Atari's TeX (MultiTeX 5.1)
 Application, distributed by 'Application Systems
 Heidelberg GmbH' in Germany, contains an application-specific
 font editor in order to design your own bitmapped font style
 for screen and printer devices.
 TypeArt/FontEdit and Didot Accessory for creating
 application-specific scalable fonts for CALAMUS N/S/SL.

[ Attention:
  Some of the above mentioned products concerning Greek and Atari
  are either commercial or authorware or shareware or public 
  domain or protected by other copyright or copyleft agreements. ]

f. Other

[ Other machines?? Anyone who knows more here?? -- nfotis ]


3. Internet/BITNET/UUCP University sites in Greece?

General Notes (Mail gateways):

If you don't know how to access eg. a machine in BITNET while
you're on the Internet, call your sysadmins for help.
I summarize here the most often asked question:

Q: I want to contact a person in , eg. GRPATVX1 in BITNET. How do I send
        mail to user@GRPATVX1 ?

A1: If your site has a smart configuration, it's enough to add the .BITNET
	domain name in the receiver's addres, ie. user@GRPATVX1.BITNET

(failing that:)
A2: Send the mail via a BITNET-Internet gateway site, eg. via as:
  Another good guess is a BITNET site close to the national BITNET gateway, eg. (via the Greek Inet gateway)

Similarly for registered Greek UUCP sites, use:

I want to stress that this is a usual *kludge* (ie. de facto usage). Don't
expect a BITNET site to use exactly these conventions. Use FAX/Phone to make an
initial contact with the sysadmins or the person you want to contact.

a. Internet sites

[  Use your nameservers to find actual IP numbers! These change every day..
   Also, this list below is always out of date - either use a name server
   or get the sites list from ]

Officially registered Second Level domains under gr

Academic domains:
Univ. of Thessaloniki         345600  IN      NS (

Democretion University of Thrace         345600  IN      NS         (

National Technical Univ. of Athens         86400   IN      NS         (

Univ. of Crete          345600  IN      NS       (          345600  IN      NS         (

Computer Technology Institute (Patras)          172800  IN      NS             (

Technica Ekpedeutika Idrymata          172800  IN      NS    (

Technical Univ of Chania          86400   IN      NS       (

Univ. of Ioannina                                               (

Research Center/ Technology Parks' domains:
------------------------------------------        345600  IN      NS     (     172800  IN      NS (

Network organization domains:
-----------------------------    172800  IN      NS     (        172800  IN      NS    (

Company networks:
----------------        172800  IN      NS    (        86400   IN      PTR     172800  IN      NS     172800  IN      NS     86400   IN      NS      ariadne.csi.forth.GR      172800  IN      NS

Amateur networks:
----------------        172800  IN      NS      172800  IN      NS      172800  IN      NS

University of Cyprus
--------------------   345594 IN       A

Greek Anonymous FTP sites
------------------------- (  Institute of Comp. Science,FORTH (Heraklion)
(NOTE: pythia is the new name for ariadne!)      (  University Of Crete    (Heraklion)  ( University Of Cyprus   (Lefkosia)         (  Computer Technology Institute (Patras)  ( NRCPS Demokritos (Athens)

login : anonymous
passwd: e-mail address
Greek Gopher servers:
Type    gopher <host>  to connect to: ( -- Institute of Comp. Science  (Heraklion) (  -- University Of Crete, C.S. dept. (Heraklion)  ( -- NRCPS Demokritos (Athens)

(There's also an X11 interface, called xgopher)

Info from Stelios Sartzetakis (>:

>I'm the network manager of the Internet gateway to Greece
>here in Heraklio-Crete at FORTH (see documentation at anon
>ftp under ~ftp/FORTH/ICS/PROFILE)
>The Internet connected sites in Greece is mainly academic
>and R&D departments of some companies.
>There is a fidonet gateway machine in Thessaloniki, which is
>connected to us (more info
>more info from the managers of the various domains under .gr
>( for example for the National Technical
>Univ of Athens etc.)

There's also an X.25 network called network ARIADNE. The network is based
at NRC Demokritos, and they are gatewayed to the Internet via the machine []. NTUA has also a connection to this
network via PADs.
In the machine [] there's also an
account "pythia" (no passwd), which runs a BBS-like information system
about the ARIADNE network.

b. BITNET/EARN sites

I have found an article from (Karl Schmuck [Bib])
last November (1992?), which described the results of a search in the
bitearn-database at listserv@dearn.bitnet.

I have edited it somewhat, but I left (I hope) all the necessary information
inside. Note that some of these machines have also Internet addresses
(at least for mail)

/* here's his query */
> sel * in bitearn where country contains gr
--> Database BITEARN, 12 hits.

Nodedesc: FORTH-Computer Science Institute
P_dakosmid: Damianos Kosmidis;Damian@ariadne;+30 81 229302,229368
P_dkosmidi: Damianos Kosmidis;Damian@ariadne;+30 81 221171,229368
P_ssartzet: Stelios Sartzetakis;STELIOS@ARIADNE;+30 81 229302,221171
Netop: p_dakosmid
Useradm: p_ssartzet
Phone: +30 81 229302
Fax: +30 81 229342

A_member: Computer Center;153 10 Agia Paraskeuei Attikis;Athens Greece
Admin: p_akostopo
Dir: p_aarvilia
Nodedesc: EKEFE-Demokritos
P_akostopo: A. Kostopoulos;KOSTOP@GRATHDEM

A_member: University of Athens,;Computer Center,  Building T.Y.P.A;University Campus;Ilissia, Athens, Greece
Admin: p_sgrathun
Dir: p_svanakar
Nodedesc: University of Athens
P_sgrathun: STAVROS GRATHUN1;STAVROS@GRATHUN1;+30 1 7226895
P_svanakar: Stavros Vanakaris;STAVROS@GRATHUN1;+30 1 7248470
Netop: p_00000004

Node: GRCRUN11
Nodedesc: University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece
P_operator: Operator;OPERATOR@GRCRUN11;+30 81 232156 ext.26
P_ptzortza: P. Tzortzakis;POSTMAST@GRCRUN11;+30 81 232357
Netop: p_operator
Useradm: p_ptzortza

A_member: University of Crete;Ampelokipi;Heraklion, Crete;Greece
Admin: p_jfragiad
Dir: p_jfragiad
Nodedesc: University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece
P_jfragiad: J. Fragiadakis;JFRAGIAD@GRCRVAX1;+30 81 232357
Netop: p_operator

A_member: Research Center of Crete;P.O. Box 527;Heraklion, Crete;Greece
Admin: p_ptzortza
Dir: p_sorphano
Nodedesc: Foundation of Research and Technology Hellas
P_operator: Operator;OPERATOR@GREARN;+30 81 232156 ext.26
P_ptzortza: P. Tzortzakis;PANTELIS@GREARN;+30 81 232357
P_sorphano: S. Orphanoudakis;ORPHICS@GREARN;+30 81 210057
Netop: p_operator

Nodedesc: FORTH-Computer Science Institute
P_00000001: Pantelis Tzortzakis pantelis;Pantelis Tzortzakis pantelis@grearn.bitnet
P_00000002: Pantelis Tzortzakis   Pantelis;Pantelis Tzortzakis   Pantelis@Grearn.bitnet +30 81 232357
Techinfo: p_00000001
Useradm: p_00000001 p_00000002
Phone: +30 81 232357
Fax: +30 81 239735

Nodedesc: Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology
Useradm: p_00000001

A_member: University Campus;Dourouti;GR 45110 Ioannina; GREECE
Admin: p_paslanis
Dir: p_sdanielo
Member: UNiversity of Ioannina
P_paslanis: Panos J. Aslanis;UOIC02@GRIOANUN;30-651-91298
P_sdanielo: Stylianos Danielopoulos;E270A01@GRIOANUN;30-651-91807
Netop: p_00000003

Nodedesc: Technological Institute  of Patra
Phone: 30 61  347778
P_1: Marios Xatziprokopiou;manager@grpatei;+30 61 347778
Site: Technological Education Institute of Patra
A_site: TEI Patras;Koukouli Patra;Greece
Dir: P_1
Admin: P_1
Techinfo: P_1
Useradm: P_2
P_2: ;postmast@grpatei
P_mxatzipr: Marios Xatziprokopiou;manager@grpatei;+30 61 347778
P_mzatzipr: Marios Xatziprokopiou;manager@grpatei;+30 61 347778
P_postmast: ;postmast@grpatei

A_member: P.O. BOX 1122, 26110 Patras, Greece
Admin: p_kkaranas
Dir: p_thadzila
Member: University of Patras
Nodedesc: Computer Technology Institute, Univ. of Patras, GREECE
P_kkaranas: Kostas Karanasios;NETMGR@GRPATVX1;+30 61 993176
P_ngrpatvx: NETMGR GRPATVX1;NETMGR@GRPATVX1;+30 61 993176
P_thadzila: Prof. Thanasis  Hadzilacos;THH@GRPATVX1;+30 61 993176
Netop: p_ngrpatvx

Internet: (
A_member: Aristotelion University;Computer Center;Thessaloniki Greece
Admin: p_mgrtheun
Dir: p_pargyrak
Nodedesc: University of Thessaloniki
P_mgrtheun: MAINT GRTHEUN1;MAINT@GRTHEUN1;+30 31 992843
P_pargyrak: Panos Argyrakis;CACZ11@GRTHEUN1
Netop: p_00000003

c. UUCP sites

[ I found a map of UUCP sites in Greece in
/pub/usenet/comp.mail.maps. Here follows an edited listing:
(I removed obviously out of date entries, because the last update was
at 19 Feb '91 -- you can route mail to any of these sites through ariadne) ]

(IP gateway also): ariadne.uucp = ARIADNE.BITNET
Check above for details about ariadne (in the IP nodes list).
[ NOTE: ariadne now's called pythia, to avoid confusion with another
 network with the same name! ]

MultiLink EE
Costas Zividis, or Sysop@ars.uucp
20 Amerikis Street, 106 71 Athens Greece Phone/Fax: +301 3640727
UUCP connection with FORUM Online Information Network
16 lines at +301 6450566
We are the only public commercial network in Greece providing UUCP
connection with the Internet for about one year now.
Providing email and newsgroups for the time being

Dimitris Hatzopoulos, postmaster@aello.uucp, +30 31 269346,
121 Tsimiski Street, GR-546 21  Thessaloniki, Greece
FidoNet nodes 2:410/1 2:410/0 2:41/0 - Network Host system for Greece.
This is a FidoNet <-> UUCP/Internet gateway site serving the FidoNet
nodes of Greece.  (FidoNet Region 41 - Network 410)

Algosystems sa
Dimitris Verikios, veri@algo.uucp, +30 1 9330551, 9345858, x9352873,
Sygrou 183, Athens, Greece 17121.
Systems Integrators specialized in UNIX and Networks

National Technical University of Athens
George Vlontakis, george@cmsu.uucp, +30 1 7757401,
Pathsivn 42, Athens, GREECE

Computer Technologies Company (ctc)
Sakis Psonis, Melanippi Chryssoulaki, postmaster@ctc.uucp, +30 1 6550574, x6570676,
452, Mesogion Avenue, 153 42 - Athens, GREECE

Computer Technology Institute (cti)
Kostas Karanasios, netmgr@ermhs.uucp, +30 61 993176, x991909,
P.O. Box 1122, 261 10 Patras, Greece
dias.uucp == GRPATVX1.BITNET; CTI's Network Mail Gateway to EARN
Connected via GREARN; Help :

Hellenic Agency for Development & Local Government sa
postmaster@athina.uucp, +30 1 3646937,
Solonos 10, 10672, Athens, Greece

Hellenic Information Systems sa
Savvidis S. Dimitrios, Matzarakis Dimitrios, postmaster@elsyp.uucp,
+30 1 6820020, 6820017, x6811555, Kifisias 16, Marousi, Athens 151 25, Greece

Epsion Software
Akis Fytas, akis@epstech.uucp, +30 1 9421707, 9427719,
377 Syngrou Avenue, P. Faliro, GR-17564, Athens, Greece
Software House specialized in XENIX/UNIX applications

Computer Technology Institute (cti)
(read dias' entry above)
CTI's Network Mail Gateway to EUnet; Help :

BetaTech Engineering Associates
Sotiris Vassilopoulos, postmaster@evelyn.uucp, +30 1 9912570, x9953378,
Al. Ikonomou 4, 167 77 - Helleniko, Greece

General Secretariat of Research & Technology
Dimitrios Papaioannou, Marinos Skolarikos, dpap@mrtath.uucp, msko@mrtath.uucp
[ mrtath does not exist anymore ]
+30 1 7714162, 14-18 Mesogeion Avenue, Athens 115 10, GREECE

Intrasoft sa, Res & Dev Department
Vassilis Kolias, vassilis@intra.uucp, +30 1 7751158, 7701692(int.50), x7782444,
2 Messogion Str., Athens Tower, 11527 Athens, Greece
[ NOTE: there's now an Internet domain]

Technical University of Crete, Lab of Dynamic Systems and Simulation
Vangelis Voudourakis, vangelis@mira.uucp, +30 821 20898,
Ag. Markou st., Chania, Crete, Greece 73132

Ntua, Institute of Structural Analysis and Aseismic Research
Vlasis Koumousis, Panos Georgiou, postmaster@statik.uucp, +30 1 7784603, x7784603,
Heroon Polytecneiou, Zografou, Athens, 157 73, GREECE

Atko sa
Tasos Pikounis, Kostas Matrozos, tpik@sungr.uucp, ksyr@sungr.uucp,
+30 1 7785950, 7784967, x7798849, 74 Mesogeion Ave., Athens 153 42, GREECE

Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Thessaloniki
Dimitris Mitrakos, Michael Strintzis, postmaster@vergina.UUCP, +30 31 219784 219783,
Thessaloniki 54006, Greece
Greek Academic Research Network ARIADNEt address (X.25) 1310010003

Technical University of Crete, Chania
Manolis Fragonikolakis, fm@omalos.uucp, +30 821 64846,
Ag. Markou st., Chania, Crete, Greece 73132

Democritus University of Thrace
Christos Chamzas, chamzas@xanthi.uucp, +30 541 26478,
Xanthi, Greece GR 67100

VALI LALIOTI, vali@cteam.uucp, +30 31 548012, 535312, 546547, FAX 544844
Karatasou 7, THessaloniki, Greece 546 26
Systems Integrators specialized in AIX and Networks (NOVELL)
Development of Software aplications in AIX, DOS, NOVELL
IBM PS/2, NOVELL, RISC 6000, INTERMEC distributor

Panayiotis Papachiou, pnp@lesbos.uucp postmaster@lesbos.uucp, +30 251 26981
G. Kortesi 73, Kallithea, Mytilene, Greece 81100

Apple Center Heraklio
Maria Troullinou, postmaster@ach.uucp, +30 81 242080,
Crysostomou 26, Heraklion, Crete, Greece 71110

Ambit Ltd
John Kozatsas, postmaster@ambit.uucp, +30 1 9950152
5, Polemistwn str. GR-164 52 Argyroupolis, Athens

d. Internet providers
[ Only one at this point. I hope to see more! ]
[ Just added entries for 2 new providers on the wings ]


There's an X.25 network called network ARIADNE. The network is based
at NRC Demokritos, and they are gatewayed to the Internet via the machine [].

In the machine [] there's also an
account "pythia" (no passwd), which runs a BBS-like information system
about the ARIADNE network.

The people run a 12-line dial-up service also, which provides
e-mail and ftp/telnet (USENET planned in the future). Here are the data:
(Current fee is 5,900 Drs. / 3 months, last I heard, and they charge
 for disk space above 500 Kbytes - up to 2 MBytes quota is available )

Telephone : +30 1 6515224
            +30 1 6513392
            +30 1 6536351

Fax       : +30 1 6532910

Address   : N.R.C.P.S. Demokritos Ag.Paraskevi (ARIADNE Network)

           * INTERNET :
           * X.400    : S=postmaster;OU=isosun;O=ariadne-t;PRMD=ariadne-t;C=gr;^
* Dr. A.Arvillias (Network Administrator)
   Telephone : +30 1 6515224
   Fax       : +30 1 6532175
   E-mail (Internet) :

* Dr. G.Korovesis (Technical Net. Administrator)
   Telephone : +30 1 6513392
   Fax       : +30 1 6532175
   E-mail (Internet) :
          (X.400)    : S=corovesis;OU=isosun;O=ariadne-t;PRMD=ariadne-t;C=gr

* P.Telonis (Internet Support)
   Telephone : +30 1 6513392
   E-mail (Internet) :

* V.Georgiou (User Support)
   Telephone : +30 1 6513392
   E-mail (Internet) :

* T.Drigas (Network Operational Manager)
   Telephone : +30 1 6536351
   E-mail (Internet) :

--------           -----------

ECHO               2043703004
EUROCOM            204372500002

2. MultiLink EE

The Cretan gateway to the Internet (FORTH) sells access to commercial
entities. At this moment, there's this pseudo-inet host, but they plan to
become a full Internet host soon.

MultiLink EE
Costas Zividis, or Sysop@ars.uucp
20 Amerikis Street, 106 71 Athens Greece Phone/Fax: +301 3640727
UUCP connection with FORUM Online Information Network
16 lines at +301 6450566
We are the only public commercial network in Greece providing UUCP
connection with the Internet for about one year now.
Providing email and newsgroups for the time being

[ Note: Compulink, the BBS of Compupress, also has plans to connect RSN
 to the Internet ]


4. What standards exist for inclusion of Greek characters into ASCII text?

NOTE: The greek typewriter character set is (assuming you follow the
Greek alphabet):

     a b g d e z h u i k l m n j o p r s t y f x c v

and `w' (lower-case only) is final sigma.

Also there are accents and diaeresis marks in Greek. Your keyboard driver
should provide for those special characters.
[I don't know if it's a standard (I think so, I never saw a mention)]

For 7-bit transmission: there's an ELOT standard, but we don't bother with it,
since we use always 8-bit ASCII (at least between us).

For 8-bit characters, there are various standards:
[ "The nice thing about standards is that there are so many to
   choose from..", Andrew Tanenmbaum  >:-> ]

It was assigned an ISO number(ISO8859-7), so its an
international and official standard.
Here in NTUA, we use it in our Unix machines (because it didn't
interfere with 'vi' metacharacters, as I was told ;-) )
Notice that this standard concerns ONLY the storage of 8-bit text files,
ie. it doesn't bother with keyboard mapping, etc. Besides the character
encodings, it provides also an escape sequence when you're switching
to/from it.

IBM 437
The de-facto standard: IBM PC character set [ 437 ]. The dealers
settled early enough on a standard 8-bit ASCII set for both Greek and
English letters.
Unfortunately, they didn't standardize on the combination of keys that
was necessary to activate the TSR programs, etc. It's a simple matter to
make a program that converts between the ELOT-928 and this format and
vice versa (in fact, we use such a program to transfer Greek files
between UNIX and PCs).

IBM PS/2 [ Which codepage??]
When IBM introduced PS/2s, there was a provision for Greek letters in
their character sets. Unfortunately, in their infinite wisdom, they decided
to make it incompatible with the existing standards, either the de-facto
IBM or the ELOT-928. So the term IBM-compatible took a new meaning
(sarcasm indended). In any case, I suppose there are converters between
these character sets.

YAS (Yet Another Standard). The programmer who wants to use Greek
letters in his program, faces a strange character set (as told by others).
As a user, because you're buying from one source, there's no big trouble.
There's at least one converter between all these formats (Chameleon), but
I don't have recent news here.
Note: Apple had 2 different versions of the Greek alphabet implemented, so
be sure to get the latest ROM revisions if you want to run a hellenized

 [ From: (Johannis Likos) ]
 Some solutions described above are either Greek IBM graphic
 character set compatible or YAUS (Yet Another Undocumented 
 For this matter I have programmed my own conversion tools for
 known chaotic standards.   

 Is anyone working on the Greek Unicode (2-Byte Character Code)?

[ Others?? ]


5. How do I write greek with troff/TeX/WP/... ??

a. TeX/LaTeX

From: Dimitrios FILIPPOU <>


The following text contains some information on whatever exists for
typesetting by TeX documents which contain entirely or in part Greek
text. Those who would like to typeset Greek texts not by plain TeX, but
rather with LaTeX, may find this short note quite useful as well.

Therefore, the following text contains some information on

        * Greek fonts created for TeX by METAFONT (this will be of
        great interest to the few ones who like to play with METAFONT),

        * complete TeX/LaTeX packages for typesetting Greek documents
        (the quick solution for anyone who wants to typeset Greek texts
        with TeX or LaTeX), and

        * where should one seek help in case he has problems to typeset
        Greek with TeX or LaTeX (the Greek connections :-) ).

A more extended version of this note has been  apparently archived
under the name "help/greek.faq" at all CTAN sites: (, (, and (

                   Public domain Greek fonts for TeX

Silvio Levy (Princeton University, New Jersey, USA) was the one who
created the first family of fonts for typesetting Greek text with TeX.
Levy's fonts were created by METAFONT and appeared by the mid-80s, just
as TeX version 3.0 started coming out. That was an 8-bit font family
and included regular, slanted, bold and typewriter typefaces. Levy made
his Greek fonts after the Didot design, a typeface which was originally
created two centuries ago by the famous Didot printers in Paris and
which is still used extensively by Greek printers today. Among Greek
printers, this Didot typeface is known as "apla" (plain), but often
outsiders call it incorrectly "Greek roman".

The METAFONT source code of Levy's fonts is still available in some FTP
sites (usually in font collections). Nonetheless, it is not worth to
bother with these METAFONT sources, because Levy's fonts have been
surpassed by the similar ones that where subsequently created by Yannis
Haralambous (Villeneuve d'Ascq, France).

Yannis Haralambous' family of Greek fonts looks the same as Levy's one,
i.e., it is of the Didot kind, but uses a different 8-bit coding
scheme. It contains five typefaces: regular, slanted, bold, "italics"
(these "italics" are kind of pseudo-italics based on the Greek math
characters of the Computer Modern fonts) and small caps. Within the
small caps of Haralambous, you will find some extra characters such as
digamma, qoppa and sampi, which are useful in writing Greek numerals.
The METAFONT sources are available by FTP from many "fonts/greek"
collections and some old "babel" collections such as (,
        directory: TeX.BABEL.GREEK.YANNIS.

Together with his fonts, Yannis Haralambous has also put a few
essential macros to allow the easy use of the fonts.

In the time between Levy's and Haralambous' works, Brian Hamilton Kelly
(Royal Military College of Science, Swindon, UK) also presented a
family of Greek fonts. Apparently these fonts (Greek "roman", "italic",
bold and typewriter) were created out of the Greek characters of the
Computer Modern math fonts. I have never tested Hamilton Kelly's fonts,
but, as their author says, they were created only for modern uni-accent
Greek; they will not work for multi-accent ancient or modern Greek. The
METAFONT sources of these fonts are available by FTP from (,
        directory: TeX.BABEL.GREEK.HAMILTON_KELLY.

The two public domain Greek TeX packages which have been put together
by Moschovakis and Dryllerakis and which are discussed later in this
note, are heavily based on the original work of Levy and Haralambous.
In terms of fonts, both these public domain Greek TeX packages include
Levy's and/or Haralambous' original work only slightly modified.
Moschovakis, for example, has added his own experimental "Greek
italics" and "Greek sans serif".

                     Commercial Greek fonts for TeX

SCHOLAR TeX is a commercial TeX package that has been created by Yannis
Haralambous. It includes fonts and macros for modern Greek, ancient
classical Greek, ancient epigraphical Greek and ("in the near future",
according to the author) Byzantine Greek. Indeed, the scholar may find
this package extremely useful as, in addition to Greek, it includes
fonts for many other non-Latin alphabets. SCHOLAR TeX is also the only
package available at this moment that contains complete hyphenation
tables for ancient classical Greek and modern Greek (hyphenation rules
are not the same for ancient and modern Greek). The price of SCHOLAR
TeX is US$200 for individuals (US$100 additional for METAFONT sources)
and US$500 for institutions (includes METAFONT sources). For orders or
more information, you can contact:

        Yannis Haralambous
        101/11 rue Breughel,
        59650 Villeneuve d'Ascq,

        fax: +33

You must specify to the author of SCHOLAR TeX what is the operating
system where you intend to use his product.

                    Public domain Greek TeX packages

At this moment, there exist two complete public domain packages with
fonts and macros for typesetting Greek documents by TeX or LaTeX. These

        1. "greektex" version 2.0 (?) by Yiannis Moschovakis (UCLA, Los
        Angeles, USA), and

        2. "GreekTeX" version 3.1 by Kostis Dryllerakis (Imperial
        College, London, UK).  

The names of these packages are indeed identical. Hence, in order to
distinguish the one from the other, I have denoted the first one with
lowercase letters.

Both these packages include a number of 8-bit fonts: regular, slanted,
typewriter, etc. They also include macros for typesetting ancient or
modern, uni-accent or multi-accent Greek by either plain TeX or LaTeX.
Greek hyphenation tables are also provided in these packages. However,
these tables have been prepared according to the hyphenation rules of
modern Greek; therefore, they may give a few erroneous results with
ancient Greek texts. 

Particularly for LaTeX users, Moschovakis has included in his
"greektex", a style file for entirely Greek articles. Dryllerakis, from
his side, has added a Greek article and a Greek book style file in
GreekTeX. These Greek style files are in reality the standard LaTeX
article and book style files with just few modifications, mostly in
titles. GreekTeX also includes a "greek.sty" which comes very handy to
those who want to include only a few Greek quotes in their documents. 

The Greek TeX packages are accompanied by "filters" for character
translation. With these filters, the packages can be used under any
system which accepts standard 7-bit ASCII encoded input such as UNIX,
DOS, etc. However, each of these packages was originally created under
a different operating system. Consequently, "greektex" is more friendly
to use on a DOS machine, because it allows the user to type in Greek or
Latin directly. On the other hand, I find GreekTeX a better choice for
UNIX running machines, since at many UNIX terminals you cannot edit a
document with Greek characters encoded at ASCII positions above 127.
For DOS machines, GreekTeX works very well with the "texconv" filter of
emTeX. Kostis Dryllerakis has also reported that his GreekTeX has been
used succesfully on a Macintosh (I would think with OzTeX). 

The fonts of "greektex" include the basic Computer Modern Latin
characters at their original posistions (ASCII below 127). Contrary to
this, the fonts of GreekTeX do not include any Latin characters, but
only Greek ones. For that reason, TeX users who want to avoid
duplicating the font files in their disks, should go for Dryllerakis'
package. I would recommend Moschovakis' "greektex" to those who want to
typeset entirely (or or almost entirely) Greek texts by TeX on their
DOS machine. However, those who will pick up Moschovakis' package
should be aware that their ".tex" file may not be easily transfered
from one machine to another. Portability seems to be the biggest
advantage of the other package, Dryllerakis' GreekTeX, even if editing
something for Greek output by GreekTeX is a bit more tedious. GreekTeX
also seems to be the more suitable Greek TeX package for the New Font
Selection Scheme (NFSS) and the upcoming LaTeX version 3.0. 

For those who are interested, Moschovakis' "greektex" is available by
FTP from ( [original site], 
        directory: pub/moschovakis/greektex 

and in all CTAN sites (these sites are listed at the beginning of this
note) in the directory:


Dryllerakis' GreekTeX is available from ( [original site], 
        directory: public/tex 

and in all CTAN sites in the directory:


It is worth to add at this point that each Greek TeX package takes
about 2 Mb of space on the hard disk of my PC. This includes
documentation files, files with macros, format files, ".tfm" font files
and ".pk" font files for a HP Laserjet printer. 

                   Contacting the Greek TeX community

Most of the fonts, macros, and packages that were described in the
previous paragraphs have been created by people who have showed much
enthusiasm on typesetting Greek by TeX, but without any intention of
making money out of this story. Their work is available to the public
at no-charge, but it can not be guaranteed that it is error-free or
that everything will be OK under any TeXing circumstances. Sometimes,
you may have to do a bit of hacking and, if like me you are not a
TeXnician, you may find yourself often frustrated. 

Thus, in the case you face problems with typesetting Greek with TeX,
but also if you have new ideas about this subject, you should join the
ELLHNIKA mailing list. To do this, just send a message to
LISTSERV@DHDURZ1.BITNET by e-mail. This message must contain only
one line in its body: 

        SUBSCRIBE ELLHNIKA <your 1st name> <your last name>

The list has currently about 80 subscribers with Yannis Haralambous
being the list owner. Once you are a subscriber to this list, you may
send your questions, your problems, or your ideas to
ELLHNIKA@DHDURZ1.BITNET. Ultimately, you may also post your problem or
request to the relevant newsgroup of USENET, namely "comp.text.tex".

Posted for 1st time:  Feb.   6, 1993
Revised (abridged):   May    2, 1993
Revised (abridged):   May    8, 1993
Revised	(abridged):   Feb.   3, 1994

b. Other typesetting systems

If you don't have any way to find Greek fonts, use the Symbol font.
It works, albeit as a last resort.

Troff: We have a set of plain Greek (ie. no italics, no boldfaces, etc.)
To be more specific, a program here reads ELOT-928 text, and, when it
encounters a Greek character, it spits out a set of Troff commands.
Obviously, it's a hack, but it works. I would like to see a more general
solution, though.
NOTE: There's an effort here to make a better (and documented) solution
for Unix and X11 or vt220's. You'll read an announcement when its in
a distributable state.

WordPerfect: Even before there existed a Greek dealer, WP had support for
Greek letters in its 3-byte format. I don't know more details, but you'll
get best results if you get one of these Word Processing packages from


6. Greek fonts into X Windows

From: (Philip Dye)
Subject: Re: Is there a way to get Greek fonts into ``idraw''?

>Does anyone know how Greek characters can be brought into idraw?
>I am trying to draw figures for a paper and am frustrated by
>the lack of support for using Greek letters in the figures in
>the program idraw.
>       -Alan Arehart

Idraw (like all x applications) uses the 'X Logical Font Description' for
specification of screen fonts.  Using this specification one includes enough
information for the X server to locate a font.  To get a list of the
available fonts from a given server use the 'xlsfont' command.  So to
determine a specification for the Adobe Symbol one might use the following:

  % xlsfonts | grep -i symbol


Each of the above specifies a specific X11 screen font.  As much of the
information is common, a simpler specification will still result in precise
match.  For example, '*-symbol-medium-*-240-*' uniquely identifies a font.
If the given pattern does not uniquely identify a font, the first available
font, as listed by the xlsfonts program, is used.

In addition, idraw requires that one specify a postscript font and point
size to associate with the screen font.

Adding the following to your X11 defaults (or resources) will enable for
symbol font items in idraw.

idraw*font12:         *-symbol-medium-r-*-100-*      Symbol             10
idraw*font13:         *-symbol-medium-r-*-120-*      Symbol             12
idraw*font14:         *-symbol-medium-r-*-140-*      Symbol             14
idraw*font15:         *-symbol-medium-r-*-240-*      Symbol             24

From: (Dionisios N. Pnevmatikatos)

You can get the fonts and a xterm resources file from using anonymous ftp.

The relevant files are in the /pub/hellenes/X11.greek directory and are called:

Gterm.rsrc and greekXfonts.shar


7. Backgammon servers

From: (James Dimos Dimarogonas)

  -Backgammon Servers
   telnet [] 4321
   telnet [] 3200

    offers: Play Backgammon! (Login: guest)


End of Technical Part of the FAQ
Nick (Nikolaos) Fotis         National Technical Univ. of Athens, Greece
HOME: 16 Esperidon St.,       InterNet :
      Halandri, GR - 152 32   UUCP:    mcsun!pythia!theseas!nfotis
      Athens, GREECE          FAX: (+30 1) 77 84 578