Archive-name: greek-faq/culture
Last-modified: 1994/03/31

Soc.Culture.Greek Frequently Asked Questions and Answers
Last Change: 31 March 1994

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Items Changed:
13. Stores that sell Greek music

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Nikolaos Fotis


This text is (C)Copyright 1992, 1993, 1994 of Nikolaos C. Fotis. You can copy
freely this file, provided you keep this copyright notice intact.

Compiled by Nikolaos (Nick) C. Fotis, e-mail:

Please contact me for updates,corrections, etc.

Disclaimer: that's only a hasty collection of texts and information as I
(or other people) remember it, so this file is worth only what you paid
for it (and even less! ;-) )


1. Bookstores that carry Greek books
2. Greek cuisine -- recommended books??
3. Greek wines -- reference book(s)
4. The 12 Greek Gods : who are they?
5. Greek Popular Music
6. Greek Mythology - Various questions, reference books
7. Greek shortwave (SW) stations
8. Greek Coffee, Reading Turkish grounds
9. Ways for a Vegan to survive in Greece
10. What was the Mythical Labyrinth??
11. Greek Muses (in Greek)
12. References on (Greek) Vlachs
13. Stores that sell Greek music

Proposed future subjects:
[ Please send me info to stuff these subjects!! -- nfotis]

 Graduate studies in Greece that are interesting for non-Greeks?
        (eg. archaeology)
[any ideas/info/... ??]


I ask the people to send me stuff in order to make this file more
complete. I'm just a kind of editor, and I cannot know everything.

YOU'll determine if this FAQ is good or not!


1. Bookstores that carry Greek books

Here are some addresses of stores/institutions
selling/publishing Greek books/periodicals/newsletters, in no particular

US/Canada :

University of Toronto Bookstore
214 College Street
Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5T 3A1
tel.: (416) 978 7905 (ancient Greek)
            978 7923 (modern Greek)
(ask for the books used by the Classics department
 ancient/modern Greek courses)

Modern Greek Studies Association
Box 1826, New Haven, Connecticut 06508
(ask for their Journal of Modern Greek Studies,
 their newsletter, bulletin, conferences, etc.)

Princeton University Press
Princeton Modern Greek Studies
41 William Street
Princeton, NJ 08540
tel.:   (609) 258 4900
        (800) PRS ISBN or 777 4726 (orders)
(ask for a list of their books on modern Greek studies)

Pella publishing company, inc.
337 West 36th Street
New York, NY 10018
(ask for a list of their books in general)

Schoenhof's Foreign Books
Cambridge, MA.
tel: 617-547-8855.

Greek books can be purchased in Montreal at the Greek Community Centre.
For more info. (prices, etc.) write to:

Communaute Hellenique de Montreal
Centre des Etudes Helleniques
5777, ave. Wilderton,
Montreal (Quebec),
Canada H3S 2V7

Attn. M. Chatzinikolaou
Tel.    (514) 738 2421  (until 17:00 EDT)
        (514) 340 3576  (after 17:00 EDT)

UK :

[ The area code is 071 ]

[ The Charing Cross address is no longer correct]
The Hellenic Book Service
91 Fortress Road,
Kentish Town,
NW5 1AG.
Tel: 071-267 9499
Fax: 071-267 9498.

6 Denmark Street WC2
phone 836-2522

Kimon Bookshop
87-88 Plender Street NW1
phone 387-8809

Located in Greece:
Olympic Book Center
16 Efroniou
116 34 Athens

Avastatikes Ekdoseis
Bibliopwleio Diovusiou Notn Karbia
Asklnpiou 67
GR-106 80 A0HNA

Ekdoseis - Palaiobibliopwleio "KOYLTOYRA"
Mavtzarou 4-(Solwnos 54)
GR 106 72 A0HNA

Ekdoseis - Bibliopwleio Stratns G. Filippotns
Solwnos 69 & Asklnpiou
GR 106 79 A0HNA

Ekdoseis Aposperitns
Eressou 9

Ekdoseis Dwrikos
Ippokratous 72

Ekdoseis Epikairotnta
Mauromixaln 60
GR 106 80 A0HNA
FAX : 36.36.083 - 36.07.382

Ekdoseis Pella
0eof. Papadopoulos & Yios O.E.
Kwletth 15 & Emm. Mpevakn

Ekdoseis Stoxastns
Mauromixaln 39
GR 106 80 A0HNA
FAX : 36.09.197

Ekdoseis Kardamitsa
Ippokratous 8
GR 106 79 A0HNA

2. Greek cuisine -- recommended books??

Look at (anonymous ftp), under the directory
pub/recipes (there's also a compressed tar file that contains all
the files). Familiar names were:
(I just did a 'dir', and these were some names I found familiar)

avgolemono, avgolemono-2, baklava, briami, kourabiedes, lamb-kebab,
lasagna-1..4, margarita-1, meat-kebabs, melomacarona, moussaka,
spanakopita, spanakopita-2

From: (Jack Campin)

I can't attest to their authenticity, but the recipes in Jack Santa Maria's
"Greek Vegetarian Cooking" are absolutely yummy, which is enough for me.
It's in print in the UK (Hutchinson, I think) and you can get it in most
large bookshops.

3. Greek wines -- reference book(s)

Lambert-Gocs, Miles. "The Wines of Greece". Faber & Faber
London, 1989(?)

It contains over 2 hundred Greek wine brands, their characteristics,
history of large and small producers, etc.etc.

4. The 12 Greek Gods : who are they?

It's rather easy to remember most of the 12 Gods of Greek Ancient
Mythology. The most easy to remember are:

Zeus, Hera, Athena, Poseidon, Aphrodite, Hephaestus, Ares, Apollo, Hermes,
Demeter, Artemis

The number 12 is the most troublesome:

> From: (Richard Wallace)
> Newsgroups: soc.culture.greek
> Subject: Re: REQUEST: Greek Gods

The most usual list has Hestia as number twelve. She was the goddess of
hearth and home, and so a rather passive figure, and from time to time
people seem to have thought that she didn't really earn her place, and
put someone else in instead.

So far as I know, Hades is one of the twelve only in the list in Plato's
Phaedrus (and perhaps, by implication, in the Laws),
and there Plato makes it quite clear that HE has made the
decision to leave Hestia out. I think Hades does not figure in the
normal lists because they are the twelve OLYMPIAN gods, and Hades does
not normally come to Olympus (though Poseidon does).

Sometimes you get Dionysus instead of Hestia. He is a rather aberrant
god anyway (either because he was a late-comer to Greek religion or for
some other reason) - in any case he doesn't normally appear in the list.

There is some evidence that there was a local tradition at Olympia which
substituted Kronos, Rhea, and Alpheios (the local river god) for
Hephaistos, Demeter, and Hestia, and there are other cases of the
insertion of local gods into the list in particular localities,
presumably out of local patriotism.

Mostly, they referred to them simply as 'the twelve', no doubt leaving
it open to each individual to write in his own list!

[ Personally, I feel that Dionysus was mentioned most often in the
 mainland Greece mythology, at least in Attica -- nfotis ]



Greek           Latin           meaning
Name            Name
---------       ------
Zeus            Zeus, Jupiter   Master of the sky, father of the
                                gods and men.

Hera            Juno            Wife of Zeus, protector of marriage

Poseidon        Neptune         Brother of Zeus, god of the sea

Athena          Minerva         Goddess of wisdom, protector of arts
                                and crafts

Apollo          Apollo          God of the sun and music

Artemis         Diana           Apollo's sister, goddess of hunting

Aphrodite       Venus           Goddess of beauty and love

Hephaestus      Vulcan          God of fire, protector of metal

Ares            Mars            God of war

Hermes          Mercury         Messenger of gods and god of trade

Demeter         Ceres           Goddess of agriculture

Persephone, Kore  Proserpina    Demeter's daughter, queen of the
Pluton, Ades       Pluton       King of the Underworld

Dionysus, Bacchos  Bacchus      God of wine, vegetation and fertility

Asklepios       Aesculapius     God of medicine

5. Greek Popular Music

   [This is from an article originally posted to soc.culture.greek by
Jon Corelis.]

  Greece has an exceptionally rich and varied musical tradition, so
that it's difficult to know where to start. But the most popular Greek
music, both in the country and with foreigners, is probably music of the
two types called "rebetika" and "laika."

  Rebetika music has sometimes been called the Greek blues, and
although musically it's not like the blues at all, the comparison is an
apt one in that like the blues, rebetika music grew out of a specific
urban subculture and was associated with a certain type of life-style,
in which poverty, oppression, sex, alcohol, drugs, and violence played
prominent roles. Rebetika music basically grew out of the culture of
the Greek refugees from Asia Minor in the early 1920's. These people
were settled in Athens and other areas and continued to live for the
most part in their own communities, usually under conditions of great
hardship. They created through the fusion of the Anatolian musical
modes they brought with them with native mainland Greek musical
traditions a unique new type of music called rebetika (no one really
knows where the name came from) which reflected both the rough,
oppressed condition of their lives and the resilience, toughness, and
good humor which enabled them to survive.

  Rebetika is also similar to the blues in the development of its
social position. In the twenties and thirties it was popular with the
urban poor who created it, later it became scorned as "low-class" music,
and then in the sixties it experienced a revival, becoming immensely
popular among young people, some of whom formed their own rebetika bands
to revive the music of the great rebetika artists of the past.

 Giving a discography for Greek music is always a bit difficult, since
records tend to rapidly go in and out of print. But I'll give the names
of a few popular records which are probably still available. Perhaps
the best place to start is with the soundtrack album from the film
"Rebetiko," issued in Greece by CBS records. This film, which told the
life story of a typical rebetika singer, included numerous musical
numbers, some of which were old rebetika songs, others of which were
especially written for the film in rebetika style. Rebetiko is one of
the very best Greek records ever, and remains immensely popular in

 For the real thing -- collections of rebetika taken from the original
recordings of the 1920-1950 period -- an excellent series is the six
volume Rebetiki Istoria, issued in Greece by EMI. If you can find all
six of these, you'll have about the best introduction to rebetika you
could hope for. A very interesting record issued in the U.S. is
Greek-Oriental Smyrnaic-Rebetic Songs and Dances (Arhoolie/Folkloric
9033,) which concentrates on the early rebetika style which still
retained much of its Eastern flavor.

 As for other records, it's probably better to give the names of some
of the better artists rather than listing individual records that may
no longer be in print. So look for the names Toundas, Tsitsanis, Markos
Vamvakaris, Rosa Eskanazi, Sotiria Bellou, Papaiouannou, and Rita

 Fortunately for us English speakers, there exists a very good book in
English on rebetika: Road to Rebetika by Gail Holst (Third ed., 1983,
Athens, Harvey.) This book is sometimes found in university libraries
in the U.S., and can probably be obtained by your local library via
interlibrary loan service. You could also try writing the publisher at
Denise Harvey & Company, Lambrou Fotiadis 6, Mets, Athens 407, Greece,
and see if you get a response. It may be a bit of trouble to track this
book down, but it's absolutely worth it if you want to investigate this
type of music.

 The other type of music is a looser category sometimes called
"laika," which basically means just "popular music." This is the music
"everyone" listens to -- sort of like rock music in the U.S. And like
rock it includes music of many different subtypes. Again, it will
probably be better to give names rather than individual recordings.
One of the best, and probably the most popular, of the artists in this
field is George Dalaras, who has worked in a wide range of genres --
recently he has branched out to include Spanish music in his
repertoire. Another good artist, who has often worked with Dalaras, is
Haris Alexiou. These two are perhaps the best introduction to laika
music at its best. A singer with a smaller but devoted following is
Arleta (she goes by her first name only,) who tends to do relaxed but
often very beautiful folk-type songs, with minimal acoustic
accompaniment. The composers Hadjidakis and Theoradakis have
innumerable records and have to some extent become popular outside of

 Perhaps I should also note that there is a certain amount of overlap
between rebetika and laika: Dalaras has recorded several rebetika
albums, Alexiou usually includes some rebetika songs on her records, and
Hadjidakis frequently uses rebetika songs as the basis for his
orchestral arrangements.

 A final note for anyone who plans a trip to Greece: the best place
I've found to buy Greek music is the record shop Pop 11, at Pindarou 38
(corner of Tsakalof) in the Kolonaki section of Athens. They have a
huge selection, the staff are knowledgable and speak English, and they
take credit cards. The staff will also be able to advise you on places
to hear rebetica and other Greek music in Athens.

6. Greek Mythology - Various questions, reference books

From: ("Christina C. Christara")
Subject: Re: Mythology questions
Date: 16 Oct 92 01:12:28 GMT (Kambiz Iranpour Mobarekeh) writes:
>I am looking for the names of some mythological personalities
>whom I read about once. One is the guy who still rolls
>a stone up the hill again and again.

This is Sisyphos (Sisufos) who tried several times to avoid
death; he actually succeded many times. He visited Hades (Adns)
and he found some tricks to come back to life. In ceramic
paintings, he is depicted pushing a stone towards the top
of a mountain, and when he is almost at the end, the stone
slips and rolls down fast. He was from Korinthos.
His struggle symbolises people's struggle against death,
something he did not eventually avoid himself.

> The other is one who is
>thirsty standing in a river in Hades trying to drink water but
>the water disappears each time. What was his name?

This is probably Tantalos, the king of Ludia (part of Asia Minor,
east of Smyrna). He was invited to dinner by the Gods,
but he could not reach anything, neither food, nor drink.
He was punished so, because when he invited the Gods to dinner
instead of sacrificing an animal for them, he sacrificed
his son, Pelops (Pelopas), whose name is the first part
of the name "Peloponnese." Tantalos was also punished,
because he gave the recipe of ambrosia and nectar
(the food and drink of the Gods) to the people.
(This story is similar to that of Prometheus, who gave
fire to people).

> Third question
>is was it Ogyas (or Ogias) barns which were cleaned by Hercul?

This must be the Avgias barns (stauloi Augeiou). Hercules (Hraklns)
was supposed to clean the barns of Augeias, king of Helis (Hlis),
in western Peloponnese. This was necessary, because the dirt (shit)
of the cows of Augeias was so much that deseases would spread to the
people. Hercules had 1 day to complete the job, otherwise he would
be a slave (doulos) for the rest of his life. Would he complete
the job, he would get a part of the kingdom and the daughter
of the king as his wife. Hercules did clean the barns (according
to some mythology version, he turned 2 rivers towards the barns
and all dirt was gone by the water), but then Augeias did not
keep his promise and Hercules fought against him. I don't
remember if he won (I wasn't there, anyway :-)).

From: (Neil Bernstein)
[regarding the last question]

 Herakles (Latinized to Hercules) cleaned the stables of King Augeas.
You may be thinking of the island of Ogygia, where Odysseus was restrained
by the nymph Kalypso after his Great Wanderings and before he returns to

[ nfotis: we could continue ad infinitum with Greek Mythology, which
 is *very* rich and engaging, IMHO. You're advised to read some good
 books about Greek Mythology. (A.T. Fear)
 suggests these two books:

> A good reference book for Greek mythology is Robert Graves' book the Greek
> Myths which has copious references to the original sources. Don't believe his
> personal commentaries however as they are idiosyncratic to put it
> mildly. Another book that might interest you is H.J.Rose's A Handbook of
> Greek Mythology.

Note: I didn't read those books, so don't sue me it these aren't good for
your tastes! ]

7. Greek shortwave (SW) stations

From: (Panayotis Fouliras; TA PhD)
Subject: Re: Need Help finding SW stations!

Try (around midnight UTC) 9.395MHz and 9.420MHz.

Other frequencies (time is important) are 9.425MHz, 11.595MHz
and 11.645MHz (one of the last two is not the Voice of Greece,
but the Radio Station of Macedonia, from the city of
Thessaloniki, which simply relays the local program; can be
heard clearly in London after 1pm UTC).

[ Anyone who can add more?? -- nfotis ]

8. Greek Coffee, Reading Turkish grounds
======================================== (William F. Kershner) writes:

>Can anyone explain the art of fortune-telling by reading Turkish coffee
>grounds? I enjoy my coffee metrio and would like to know more about it.

From: ("Christina C. Christara")

First, all what you are going to read after this line is a fraud!

The part of the coffee cup which is positioned closest to the person
drinking it is the part of the heart. There all the sentimental
issues are depicted...  The opposite part of the cup describes the
"professional" issues. In general it is good for the grounds not to
be very dark. So when you drink your coffee, before it ends, shake
it a bit, then turn it upside down, so that most grounds go away.
You make your future better!

If you have a lot of imagination you look at the shapes the grounds
have done and talk about roads, houses, airplanes, trees, etc.

The bottom of the cup is the deep part of the heart... You make
a wish and put your finger there. If the finger leaves a clear mark
then the wish will come true. If the finger does not catch all the
grounds, then the wish will not become true ... So twist your finger
a bit, when you put in the bottom of the cup. But do this without
the person telling you your fortune to know about it!

Well, the fraud is over.

From (Konstantinos Konstantinides)
and jyc@leo.Stanford.EDU (Jon Corelis):

There is a monograph on the topic (in Greek) by Elias Petropoulos,
O tourkikos kafes en elladi (Athens, Ekdoseis Grammata, 1979).

The monograph has lots of figures and discusses the art of
coffee reading in Greek prisons.

A very interesting book, with many illustrations, including some of
coffee-grounds patterns with their supposed meanings. The title, of
course, is deliberately provocative. In case anyone wasn't upset enough
by it, Petropoulous makes a point of beginning his book by saying, "Oi
Tourkoi, opou deon na thewrountai paterades twn neoellinwn, metaksu
allwn agathwn kai deinwn pou mas eklirodotisan einai kai o kafes."

9. Ways for a Vegan to survive in Greece

For Vegans (NOT vegetarians - they eat cheese and eggs and milk etc.), who
are people who don't eat animal products at all, there are some resources:


Well...I just spent three weeks in Greece...most of that was spent in Athens.
And I'm a vegetarian. I remember a restaurant in Plaka in Athens called Eden.
It's a vegan/vegetarian restaurant...priced pretty decently. They had a ton
of bizarre dishes that I'm not going to even attempt to start listing them.
Suffice it to say that I could have eaten three meals a day there for those
three weeks and never would have had to eat the same thing twice. There's
also a fast food restaurant chain called "Goody's"'s alot like Wendy's
or BK in the states. They had alot of different types of salads available.
I usually got this one called Mexican salad...which was beans, lettuce, corn,
radishes, and some other veggies. Anyway, those salads were completely free
of animal products (don't order the salad dressing though!).

And then you can always go to the marketplaces or supermarkets and stock up
on fresh fruits, veggies, breads, etc...those sorts of things are also readily
available. Probably the only problem your students will have (and personally
I don't consider this a problem) is that they'll have to eat a lot of raw
uncooked things...if they don't care about that though then they won't ever
go hungry!

From: (Trevor Elbourne (Supr. Hell) BE)

Well Greeks have an intresting custom that might help. On religious
ocasions they faast. When I mean Greeks honestly faast I mean all products that
come from animals with blood are excluded. A possible exception were the food
for fasting would not be OK is some sea food. Like kalamari or octupous. But
that would be obvious. So there is a range off food set up for the fasting that
would fit very well. I don't live in Greece now but I am sure if you ask
for food for the fasting then you should have no problem. There is quite a bit
of it.

10. What was the Mythical Labyrinth??


There seem to be two schools of thought:

One is that the palace at Knossos was itself also referred to as The Labyrinth.
Gerhard Sasse in his book "Crete" (APA Publications, 1990) writes:

"The Greek designation of part of the palace, if not the whole of it, as
the Labyrinth, could also mean "House of the Double Axe", if the derivation
of the word labyrinth from the Anatolian word 'Labrys' (double axe) is

"In Knossos several of these artifacts were found, in the so-called
"Shrine of the Double Axe", and the holy sign of the double axe was scored into
pillars and on votive objects -- as in other Cretan palaces."

On the other hand The Labyrinth may have actually been a passageway of caves
in close proximity to Knossos. Lawrence Durrell in his book "The Greek Islands"
(Vicking Press, New York, 1978) writes:

"To revert for a moment to the vexing question of the labyrinth, it is
important to make a distinction between a man-made maze and a labyrinth
constructed by nature; and the natural geological labyrinth situated near
Gortyna has for long been a candidate for the honours of being the original
lair of the Minotaur. Sceptics have declared that it is simply an abandoned
quarry with a few corridors but, while I have not completely explored it
myself -- for lack of an Ariadne and a ball of thread -- I think it is more
suggestive than that.

"I can vouch ... for the fact that the place is known as "The
Labyrinth" in the local speech. To the best of my knowledge the whole of it
has never been explored, though the villagers thereabouts claim the internal
network of corridors span an area of some ten kilometers. One must, as always,
subtract a bit of peasant exaggeration, but nevertheless the place is
impressive ..."

A certain Reverend Tozer who wrote a travel book in the 19th century (haven't
the reference at hand) wrote:

"Our host, Captain George, undertook to be our guide and accordingly
next morning we started in his company and, fording the stream close
under the Acropolis of Gortyna, ascended the hills towards the north-west
and in an hour's time reached the place ... It is entered by an aperture of
no great size in the mountainside, where the rocks are of clayey limestone,
forming horizontal layers; and inside we found what looks almost like a
flat roof, while chambers and passages run off from the entrance in various
directions ... We were furnished each with a taper and descended by a
passage on both sides of which the fallen stones had been piled up; the roof
above us varies from four to sixteen feet in height. Winding about, we
came to an upright stone, the work of a modern Ariadne, set there to show
the way, for at intervals other passages branched off the main one, and
anyone who entered without a light would be hopelessly lost. Captain
George described to us how for three years during the late war (1867-9)
the Christian inhabitants of the neighbouring villages, to the number of
five hundred, and he among them, had lived there as their predecessors
had done during the former insurrection, to escape the Turks who had
burned their homes and carried off their flocks and herds ..."

If you wish to pursue this issue seriously I would reccommend you go to your
local library and do some research. A couple of books that might get you started
 (in addition to the ones already cited):

AUTHOR: Bord, Janet, fl. 1972-
TITLE: Mazes and labyrinths of the world /
IMPRINT: London : Latimer New Dimensions, 1976.

AUTHOR: Matthews, William Henry, 1882-
TITLE: Mazes and labyrinths : their history and development /
IMPRINT: New York : Dover Publications, 1970.

AUTHOR: Doob, Penelope Reed.
TITLE: The idea of the labyrinth from classical antiquity through the Middle A>
IMPRINT: Ithaca : Cornell University Press, 1990.

I don't know anything about the "Cave of the Cyclops" near Sougia. Are you
certain that it exists? I'd be surprised if there were any pictures of it
even if it does exist, let alone ones available via ftp.

Not far away (a few km from Asogires, to the west of Sougia) is the well known C
ave of Soure in which the 99 Holy Fathers lived. Also east of Rodovani (also
west of Sougia) is the Cave of Skotini in which ceramic remains from the
Classical epoch (550-67 B.C.) have been found. To the east is the world famous
Samaria Gorge and en route is the Tzanis Cave where legend has it that on
moonless nights a shepherd, enchanted by a water sprite, plays his lyre and
sings of sorrow ...

Good luck!

Christopher Majka.

11. Greek Muses (in Greek)
[ Can anyoe make an acceptable translation?? - nfotis ]

From: peter@ENGR.TRINITY.EDU (Peter Vafeades)

Mouses, oi: 0ugateres tns Mvnmosuvns kai tou Dia n' tns Armovias n' tou Ouravou
kai tns Gaias, 0eotntes tns poinsns, tns mousikns, tou xorou, tns astrovomias
kai gevika twv texvwv kai twv epistnmwv.  O ari0mos tous poikillei: allote
treis, allote efta kai telika oi e3ns evvia:

Kalliopn, n spoudaiotern apo oles, prostatria tns epikns poinsns
Kleiw tns Istorias,
EUTERPH tns mousikns,
Polumvia twv umvwv kai tns mimikns,
Teryixorn tou xorou kai tns xorikns poinsns,
Eratw tns lurikns poinsns,
Melpwmevn tns tragwdias,
0aleia tns kwmwdias kai
Ouravia tns astrovomias.

Arxngos tous 0ewrouvtav o Apollwvas (Mousngetns).  Topos latreias tous ntav
ektos apo tov omwvumo lofo stnv A0nva kuriws o Elikwvas stn Boiwtia.  Oi arxaioi
Ellnves tous eixav afierwsei tis pnges Agavippn kai Ippokrnvn.  Agapnmevoi tous
topoi e3allou ntav o Parvassos kai oi Delfoi (0eog. 1 k. e3. 52.75 k.a. Om Um.
25. Apollod. A13)


12. References on (Greek) Vlachs	[NEW]

 In response to a recent posting on s.c.bulgarian about Vlachs, I would like
 to quote a few references, as well as some information on Greek
 Vlachs (Koutsovlachs) from Evangelos Averoff-Tositsas' book "The
 political side of the Koutsovlach affair" (first published in 1948).
 First, the references, which, according to the author, cover all
 theories concerning the roots of that Balkan group/tribe/nation:
 A. Keramopoulou. Ti eivai oi koutsoblaxoi. Athens, 1939.
 M. Xrusoxoou. Blaxoi kai koutsoblaxoi. Athens, 1909.
 Th. Capidan. Les Macedo-roumains du Pinde. Paris, 1937.
 N. Jorga. Introduction a la connaissance de la Roumanie et des
           Roumains. Bucarest, 1927.
 G. Bratianu. Une enigme et un miracle historique, le peuple
              roumain. Bucarest, 1937.
 B. Recatas. L' etat actuel du bilinguisme chez les Macedo-roumains
             du Pinde et le role de la femme dans la language. Paris, 1934. 
 A.J.B. Wace-M.S. Thompson. The nomads of the Balkans. London, 1914.
 Ilia Barbulescu. Relations des Roumains avec les Serbes, les Boulgares,
                  les Grecs et la Croatie en liaison avec la question
                  macedo-roumaine. Jasi, 1921.
 Jovan Cvijic. La Peninsule Balcanique. Paris, 1918.
 Jacques Ancel. Peuples et nations des Balkans. Paris, 1926.
 G.A.Virgilij. La Questione Rumeliota. Bitonto, 1909.
 Two additional references (in Greek), somewhat more specialized, are:
 K. Nikolaidou. Etumologikov Le3ikov tns Koutsoblaxikns Glwssns. Athens, 1909.
 A. Xatznmixaln. Oi ev tw Ellnvosxoleiw Metsobou dida3avtes kai
                 didax8evtes. Iwavviva, 1940. 
 In his book, Mr. Averoff-Tositsas focuses on the efforts by Romania
 and Italy, prior to WW II and during WW II, respectively, to claim
 the Vlachs of Greece--a semi-nomadic people of (usually) Greek
 conscience who speak a Romanian/Latin dialect--as their brethren.   
 Romanian efforts were focused on the establishment of schools and
 scholarships luring the poor, while Italian efforts were based on
 military occupation and the fascinating claim that the Vlachs were
 the descendants of the Fifth Roman Legion! Romanian propaganda was
 more successful, resorting even to transplanted songs about "the     
 pretty gal waiting beyond the Black Sea" or "the brother in the
 great Vlach plain"; the end of a song is particularly illuminating:
 "K' nti foumlou atselou gritsesklou  "Because that Greek tobacco
  Ntounikat i minti alorou"            has darkened their mind"
 The origins of and relations among Vlachs living in various parts         
 of the Balkans are complicated and certainly not known to me; I   
 understand that those of southern Yugoslavia & Bulgaria often consider
 themselves to be Greek (no statistics available), but I guess this   
 changes as one gets closer to Romania. (I hope other netters can     
 provide more information.) Within Greece, Vlachs are considered to        
 be Greek, although somewhat different; it is said that their men make   
 good husbands, while their women can be fatally attractive, "having    
 young men stabbing each other by their aprons" ("stis podies tous  
 sfazovtai pallnkaria"). I hope to provide some personal impressions,
 based on a trip passing through the Vlach village of Samarina, in a
 future posting (scg, only).
 I would like to conclude with a few words about Mr. Averoff-Tositsas,
 who passed away on 1/2/90: a Vlach himself, he was a major figure of
 post-war Greek politics, having played a major role in the Cyprus affair,
 the passage from dictatorship to democracy, etc; in addition to this, he
 was an author and play-writer, art collector, cheese-maker and owner of
 20,000 almond trees. 


13. Stores that sell Greek music

There are many stores. Here I add what's been noted on soc.culture.greek:

From: (Michalis  Syrimis)
Few days ago I posted a phone number for a company that sells
greek music.  To day I received mail from people who tried to call
the company but the got a message saying the # was not available.

So here's the number again: 1-800-4530013,(I dialed it from 
Illinois, and works fine).  Another no. showing on the cataloque is

From: (Bob Ingria)
Someone mentioned looking for Greek music stores in Astoria.  One
place that carries Greek CDs and tapes (also videos) in Astoria is

        Corfu Center

There is also a Greek store on 42nd street just across from the Port
Authority Bus Terminal, again with CDs, tapes, and videos.

From: <Teresa Sarandrea>
The best place I've found for Greek music is
Greek Video Records & Tapes, Inc., 394 McGuinness Blvd.,
Brooklyn, New York, U.S.A. 11222,
phone 718-383-9455, FAX 718-383-5313.  

You can request copies of their catalogues:

        1.  Video Catalog:  over 1200 titles of Greek videotapes
        2.  Compact Disc Catalog:  over 800 selections of Greek CDs
        3.  New General Cassette Catalog:  over 1200 selections of Greek 

This place is the best source for music.  Most of the retail Greek stores 
buy their music and videos from here, so they also sell wholesale.  

+From: (David C. Manson)
+	We have here in Sydney a music store called Odeon Music House, which
+has a very good collection of Greek music. It does also stock other 
+"international" stuff, but its Greek collection is its speciality. The address
+is 94 Bathurst Street, Sydney, NSW, and the phone number, 02-267-6480.
+	About three years ago, my wife and I were in Athens on holiday, and 
+found that we had a better selection of CD's in Sydney, than we saw in Athens.
+(We are both Rembetika fans.) I suspect that Melbourne, given the size of the 
+Greek population there, also has pretty good availability of Greek music.

End of Cultural Part of the FAQ
Nick (Nikolaos) Fotis         National Technical Univ. of Athens, Greece
HOME: 16 Esperidon St.,       InterNet :
      Halandri, GR - 152 32   UUCP:    mcsun!pythia!theseas!nfotis
      Athens, GREECE          FAX: (+30 1) 77 84 578